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Vestiaria coccinea formerly occurred on all the main islands in the Hawaiian Archipelago (USA) but it is now extinct on Lana'i and relict populations (probably fewer than 50 individuals) remain on O`ahu and Moloka`i. Recent population estimates are: c.385,000 individuals, excluding birds on O`ahu, during 1976-1983 and more than 350,000 individuals in the early 1990s following recent declines in several populations. There is now evidence from monitoring (much of it unpublished) that the species has declined throughout the Hawaiian islands, except on windward Mau`i and at Hakalau, Hawai`i, where the populations appear to be stable. The numbers of individuals detected during monitoring have fallen at both mid and low elevations. The apparent decline appears to have been most pronounced in western Hawai`i, although there is little quantitative data for this area. © International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Source: IUCN.